A Warlord, His Sugar and the Russians(?) Who Made It

sugarfactory
Envelope from the Hulan Sugar Refinery, possible date 1911-1927. Source.

As the archival sources are somewhat sparse in the lead-up to the July Days – Beijing in June 1917 was, after all, in the throes of a full-scale political crisis – this post makes a small detour to an interesting standalone document from later in the summer. In August 1917, Manchurian potentate and leader of the Fengtian warlord clique Zhang Zuolin wrote to the Foreign Ministry regarding a new contract for the Russian staff at the Hulan Sugar Refinery, located in a district of Harbin.

In Manchuria, the cultivation of sugar beets and the production of sugar therefrom were intimately linked to Russian imperial influence. Sugar beets were introduced to the region by Polish entrepreneurs, who established a refinery in Acheng around 1908. The Hulan facility was its main Chinese-owned competitor. Also founded in 1908 as Fuhua Sugar Refinery, a limited company, it was taken over by the Manchurian authorities in 1911 and renamed the Three Eastern Provinces Hulan Sugar Refinery. Lack of specialist manpower, however, obliged the Hulan Refinery to employ Russian nationals. This document sets out some of the administrative hurdles involved.

(Unfortunately, the names of all the Russian staff are listed in Chinese transliteration, making it difficult to determine who they were. Given the heavy involvement of Poles in Manchuria’s sugar industry, it is not unlikely that they were in fact Polish.)

案查東三省呼蘭制糖廠於民國四年八月聘用俄人干挐爾士基為該廠總技師一節,當經咨明查照在案。茲據該廠長轉呈該技師因病辭職,請將原定合同作廢等語,當經令照准,並飭規劃接替辦法去后。現據呈復稱:

「為遵令規劃技士擔負責任辦法,俾資遵守,祈鑒核施行事:竊查本廠具呈,總技師干挐爾士基辭職離廠,並繳還原訂合同等情一案,奉鈞署指令,據呈報,該廠總技師干挐爾士基辭職離廠,並繳還合同各情形均悉,應准備案。所有制糖部份,應如何規劃,方免臨時貽誤,仰即擬定辦法呈報查核,此令等因。奉此,自應遵照辦理。

查本廠原有俄技師工匠,雖由公家給與工資,然其來廠,皆經總技師干挐爾士基依照合同雇佣。現在該總技師辭職,既奉批准原訂合同取銷,其俄技匠等當然隨之失其在廠服務資格。惟制糖事宜系屬專技,須借材異域。值此歐戰,另募維艱,僅就原有者酌善留用,計技師三名,工匠八名,較原合同共減五名,均已繼續供職,以免貽誤。

復以制造關系至鉅,如無統屬專員擔負責任,遇事難免諉卸,殊非慎重之道。查機器師綿力查爾克、制糖師雅士切爾、化學師羅錦比爾等三人,技藝嫻熟,品性端方,上年制造,頗資得力。予以專責,尚能勝任。經與商榷,均願共負完全責任。茲經酌定俄文規章十六條,各予簽字,俾資遵守。其有事繁,人不敷用,臨時再雇副手佐理,並募工匠,俾資驅策。似此辦法,責有攸歸,款無虛糜。庶於責成之中,仍寓撙節公款之意。是否有當,除分別委任飭令照常供職並將約定規章存案外,理合譯錄呈請鑒核轉咨」等情。

據此,除指示並分咨外,相應鈔同附件,咨請貴部查照備案。

Records show that the Three Eastern Provinces Hulan Sugar Refinery in August 1915 employed the Russian Ganaersiji [Konarskii?] as its chief technician. Now, the factory manager has conveyed that this technician has resigned due to illness, asking that the original contract be voided. I approved this and instructed that replacements be arranged. Here is the reply:

‘Regarding the implementation of [your] instructions to arrange for technicians for the post. Our Refinery wrote that Chief Technician Ganaersiji had resigned and left the facility, returning the original contract. We then received your instructions that Ganaersiji’s resignation and the return of the contract were noted. As for how the refining operatons should be arranged, plans should be drawn up in order to avoid disruptions when the time came. Having received this, we complied and carried it out.

Although our Refinery’s existing Russian technicians and workmen are paid out of the public purse, their presence at the Refinery was due to Chief Technician Ganaersiji, who employed them based on the contract. Now that said Chief Technician has resigned, and now that approval has been granted to abolish the original contract, these technicians and workmen will naturally lose their capacity to work in the Refinery as a result. However, sugar refining is a specialist skill and capable people must be found abroad. With the European War, further recruitment is extremely difficult. It is only because of this that we are retaining some existing staff after careful consideration: three technicians and eight workmen, five fewer than in the original contract. All are continuing in their posts to avoid disruption.

Further, as production matters are considerable, if there is no chain of command or responsible superior, shirking will be unavoidable when issues arise. This is certainly not a prudent course of action. Mechanic Mianlichaerke, refining specialist Yashiqieer and chemist Luojinbier are all three well-skilled and honest in character, and were very capable in the refining operations last year. If responsibilities are granted to them they will certainly succeed. After discussions with them, they all agreed to take on full responsibilities. A 16-point list of regulations was drawn up in Russian and each of them signed it. If matters prove too complicated and manpower is insufficient, then further assistants and workmen may be hired. It seems to us that this arrangement delegates responsibility without being financially extravagant. In the assignment of duties we kept to the principle of economising on public funds. As for whether this is appropriate, apart from instructing the appointees to continue at their posts and keeping the regulations on file, a translation is enclosed for your approval.’

A copy of the appendix is presented for Your Ministry’s reference.

hulancatholic
The Catholic church in Hulan, built 1908. Source.

The attached contract provides a glimpse into the terms of employment for Russian staff. Written contracts were nothing new for Chinese firms, but it is interesting to see non-Chinese employees involved in longstanding contractual practices. Of particular note is the emphasis on appointing managers taking “full responsibility” for operations, a practice then prevalent among many Chinese firms. Under Point 12, moreover, the Refinery’s profits were to be shared among technical specialists as well as workmen, in addition to their salaries. This was in keeping with Chinese business practices of the time and considered unusual by non-Chinese entrepreneurs.

約定規章
第一條:本規章俄技師工匠均應遵守,其約定辦法如左。
第二條:技師等擔負關於廠內一切制造責任(但對於工作部分內應用之件,由技師先期知會本廠及時預備,否則咎歸貽誤者)。
第三條:關於制造事務,技師等須和衷共濟,互相輔助,商同辦理。如有意見不同之處,取決之廠長。
第四條:服務無誤者,酌予獎勵,否則辭退,以示平允。
第五條:指揮廠內工作,由技師行之。
第六條:黜陟俄技師工匠,由廠長行之。
第七條:無論俄技師工匠,在廠制造時間及在制造期前二個月,均不得辭職出廠。其此以外時間,如欲離職者,須於一個月前通知本廠。
第八條:本廠如有裁減俄技師工匠時,須於一個月前通知,並發給兩月恩薪。
第九條:凡俄工匠如有紊亂廠規,由華員與技師評議確定者,隨時撤退,並不得享受第八條之待遇。
第十條:俄技師每年例假二個月,工匠每二年例假二個月,其分配日期由技師會商妥協稟呈廠長核准行之。
第十一條:華工遇有請假者,由監工員取得技師同意后,呈請廠長核准施行。
第十二條:在制造完竣后,營業如果獲利,俄技師工匠得享受分給花紅。共數目須視服務勤惰,技藝良否,由廠長酌定后,呈請省長核准施行。
第十三條:於職務應辦事項外,如有發表意見之處,俄技師直陳於廠長,工匠陳由技師轉達,聽候採擇。
第十四條:本廠習學制造學生,由技師等擔任義務教授,且課其速成。
第十五條:俄技師工匠得享受醫士救護並藥料。
第十六條:本規章自廠長技師簽字呈奉省長批准之日施行。
廠長寶興。簽字。
機器師綿力查爾克。簽字。
化學師羅錦比爾。簽字。
制糖師雅士切爾。簽字。

Regulations
1. These regulations must be honoured by all Russian technicians and workmen, with the provisions as below.
2. Technicians etc are responsible for all production duties in the refinery (however, regarding items necessary for the work, technicians are to inform the factory managers in advance to prepare them promptly. If not, the responsibility will be borne by those causing the disruption.)
3. In all production matters, technicians must pull together, assisting one another and working in concert. If there are differences in opinion, the decision lies with the factory manager.
4. Those with error-free work will be considered for awards. Conversely, [those making errors] will be dismissed as a sign of fairness.
5. Technicians will direct the work within the refinery.
6. The promotion or demotion of Russian technicians and workmen will be carried out by the factory manager.
7. Both Russian technicians and workmen may not resign and leave the refinery during the production process, as well as for two months before. At other times, those who wish to resign must give one month’s notice to the refinery.
8. If the factory wishes to cut back on Russian technicians and workmen, it must give one month’s notice and give two months’ compassionate pay.
9. Any Russian technician or workman who violates refinery regulations and has been jointly ruled on by the Chinese staff and technicians can be dismissed at any time. Moreover, they will not receive the pay set out in Point 8.
10. Russian technicians are entitled to two months’ holiday a year, workmen to two months’ holiday every two years. The allocation of dates will be decided after the technicians have discussed and applied for them with the factory manager, for his approval.
11. If Chinese workers apply for leave, their supervisor must obtain the technicians’ agreement before applying to the factory manager for approval.
12. At the end of the production process, if the business proves profitable, Russian technicians and workmen will receive bonuses. The total amount will depend on diligence and level of skill shown. This will be determined by the factory manager before seeking the Governor’s [Zhang Zuolin’s] approval.
13. Apart from essential work, if opinions arise, technicians should present them directly to the factory manager and workmen to the technicians, who will forward them and await a decision.
14. Technicians etc will serve as voluntary teachers for students studying the production process at the refinery and will teach them the skills quickly.
15. Russian technicians and staff will receive medical care and medicines.
16. These regulations take effect with the signatures of the factory manager and technicians, and upon approval by the Governor.

Signed
Factory manager Bao Xing
Mechanic Mianlichaerke [Mel’nichak?]
Chemist Luojinbier
Refining specialist Yashiqieer

Deng Ruyan, Guo Tingyi and Hu Qiuyuan (eds.) Zhong-E guanxi shiliao: Dongbei
bianfang (1), Minguo liunian zhi banian. (Taipei: Zhongyang yanjiuyuan jindaishi
yanjiusuo, 1960), pp. 34-36.
hulanstreet
Street in Hulan. Source.

Zhang’s degree of involvement in a single sugar refinery was not unusual. In fact, it was part of a coordinated programme of economic development involving railways, ports, textile mills, timber, soybean and coal on the one hand and more efficient taxation on the other. Capital, funds, manpower and technology were mustered and deployed by Zhang and his subordinates to grow the wealth of the Manchurian administration, partly in aid of military adventures to the south, but also as a counterweight to Russian and Japanese economic clout.

The Hulan Refinery, like Zhang’s own Manchurian project, was shortlived. In 1927, the falling price of sugar forced the Refinery to change tack, focusing on electricity generation and brewing instead. Following the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, it was absorbed into a larger sugar refining corporation and reduced to one of its production facilities. The refinery outfit was taken over by the Harbin municipality in 1948 and commenced operations again in 1949; today, its premises are occupied by the Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology’s gymnasium.

As for the Polish-founded sugar refinery in Acheng, which was under non-Chinese ownership until 1950, the following interview with the late Professor Gregory Grossman of UC Berkley sheds light on its operations:

One thought on “A Warlord, His Sugar and the Russians(?) Who Made It

  1. Jerzy

    Hulan sugar refinery was founded by Austrian-Hungarians
    The Polish names you mentioned are :
    Mielczarek
    Lubliner (probably Polish Jew)
    Jaskier
    Catholic church in Hulan was built by the French Missionaires de Paris
    Before there was a chapel used by Poles before erecting their own church in Harbin

    Like

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